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Terminology: To insure that we are all in agreement.

Material items that man uses are historical examples as well as utilitarian or decorative things. It challenges us to have to make decisions when these items are damaged, show wear,
or do not serve our needs.
In a musical instrument workshop the maker is asked to intervene and correct or
change existing conditions that need stabilizing or changing: the maker is faced
with a number of choices in approach: they are:

 

Preservation: Limits the replacement of parts to nearly zero. The goal of preservation is to stop deterioration of the historical record much as one would if the object were being prepared for a museum. Families often keep instruments for generations regardless of if they are played.

Restoration: attempts to make the item whole and usable again. Much more latitude is given the restorer to make and replace components. Duplicating the style as well as the function of replaced parts is central to restoration.

Repair : interdiction of the craftsmen to stabilize components that are failing; an example would be the gluing of a loose leg on a chair or a loose part on a violin.

Reconstruction: Major replacement of components that have been damaged beyond hope of repair,
where preservation is not an issue. Reconstruction is often done on new, seriously damaged instruments.

Maintenance: Musical instruments are tools; they are early scientific tone generators. Because of handling and wear, components are subject to deterioration that eventually hamper the utility of the tool. This is best done with the preservationist's hat on; limiting what is done to only what is needed to bring the instrument back to good usable condition.